After reading this section, you should be able to describe how a radar works and what portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that modern radars use. You should also be able to define the term "reflectivity" as well as its units. Furthermore, you should be able to explain how a radar locates a particular signal and describe concepts such as beam elevation and ground clutter. Finally, after completing the other sections detailing the various types of satellite imagery, you should be able to distinguish between radar imagery and satellite imagery. It is particularly important that you distinguish between radar images and enhanced infrared images.
The ancestry for modern radar can be traced all the way back to the late 1800s and German physicist Heinrich Hertz's work on radio waves (radar is actually an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging). History buffs may be interested in this tracing of the family tree of radar, but the advent of using radar to detect precipitation began early in World War II. The United States, in a joint effort with Great Britain, advanced the design of radar by using microwaves, which, as you may recall, have a shorter wavelength than radio waves.
This shift to shorter wavelengths provided more precision in detecting and locating objects relative to the microwave transmitter. Without realizing it, the shift from radio waves to microwaves paved the way for using radar to detect the presence and range of not only enemy aircraft, but squadrons of airborne raindrops, ice pellets, hailstones or snowflakes as well. Like generations on a family tree, the patriarch World War II radars, which were used to detect precipitation as a wartime afterthought, were the forefathers of the WSR-57 radars (WSR stands for "Weather Surveillance Radar" and the "57" refers to 1957, the first year they became operational). This image, taken from a WSR-57 radar, which looks rather crude by modern standards, shows the pattern of precipitation in Hurricane Carla near the Texas Coast on September 10, 1961. The yellow arrow in the north-east quadrant of the storm points to the location where a tornado occurred near Kaplan, Louisiana.
The next generation of radars, appropriately tagged with the acronym, NEXRAD for NEXt Generation RADars, became operational in 1988. Weather forecasters often refer to one of these radars as a WSR-88D. The "WSR" is short for "Weather Surveillance Radar," the "88" refers to the year this type of radar became operational and the "D" stands for "Doppler," indicating the radar's capability of sensing horizontal wind speed and direction relative to the radar. Check out the sample image (below) from the WSR-88D radar at State College, PA, at 23Z on April 27, 2011.
So, ultimately, how do radars work? Well, for starters, radar is an active remote sensor, unlike the satellite-based sensors we've just covered. While radiometers sit aboard satellites orbiting in space and passively accept the radiation that comes their way from Earth and the atmosphere, the antenna of a WSR-88D, housed inside a dome, transmits pulses of microwaves at wavelengths near 10 centimeters. Once the radar transmits a pulse of microwaves, any airborne particle lying within the path of the transmitted microwaves (e.g. bugs, birds, raindrops, hailstones, snowflakes, ice pellets, etc.) scatters microwaves in all directions. Some of this microwave radiation is back-scattered or "reflected" back to the antenna, which "listens" for "echoes" of microwaves returning from airborne targets (see the animation below).
The radar's routine of transmitting a pulse of microwaves, listening for an echo and then transmitting the next pulse happens faster than a blink of an eye. Indeed, the radar transmits and listens at least a 1000 times each second. But, like a friend who's a good listener, the radar spends most of its time listening for echoes of returning microwave energy. In one hour, the radar transmits pulses of microwaves for a grand total of only seven seconds. It spends the other 59 minutes and 53 seconds listening for echoes from targets.
The radar's antenna has to have a really "good ear." Indeed, by the time a radar pulse scatters back to the radar antenna, it's only a relative whisper because the power typically drops to less than few milliwatts (after being sent out with a peak power of 100-500 kilowatts). These units of power are a bit cumbersome to work with, so meteorologists convert the power of the returning radar signal (in milliwatts) to an alternative measure of echo intensity that's appropriately called reflectivity with units of dBZ (which stands for "decibels of Z"), which is a logarithmic measure of reflectivity (check out this Wikipedia article if you want to learn more about dBZ). Without getting into too much detail here, the bottom line is that the value of dBZ increases as the strength (power) of the signal returning to the radar increases.
To pinpoint the position of an echo relative to the radar site (within the circular range of the radar), the target's linear distance and compass bearing from the radar must be determined. First, realize that the transmitted and returning signals travel at the speed of light, so by measuring the time of the "round trip" of the radar signal (from the time of transmission to the time it returns), the distance that a given target lies from the radar can be determined. For example, it takes less than two milliseconds for microwaves to race out a distance of 230 kilometers (143 miles) and zip back to the radar antenna (143 miles represents the maximum range of radars operated by the National Weather Service).
How does the radar know the direction or bearing of the target relative to the radar? First, In order to "see" in all directions, the radar antenna rotates a full 360 degrees at a speed usually varying from 10 degrees to as much as 70 degrees per second. A computer keeps track of the direction that the antenna is pointing at all times, so when a signal is received, the computer calculates the reflectivity, figures out the angle and distance from the radar site, and plots a data point at the proper location on the map. Believe it or not, all of this happens in just a fraction of second!
To wrap up our discussion on the how radar works, we need to talk about how high in the atmosphere radar signals come from. A common misconception is that all radar signals come from rain (and other targets) near the ground, but this is incorrect because the radar typically does not transmit its signal parallel to the ground. Indeed, the standard angle of elevation is just 0.5 degrees above a horizontal line through the radar's antenna (see the schematic below); however, some NEXRAD units can scan at even smaller angles of elevation if local terrain allows. Either way, the radar "beam" (signal) is initially not much higher above the ground than the radar itself, but with increasing distance from the radar, the radar "beam" gets progressively higher above the ground (and its width increases). Check out the diagram below. At a 0.5 degree scanning angle and at distance of 120 km, the radar beam is over 1 km above the surface (nearly 3300 ft). Near the maximum range of 230 km, the radar beam is at twice that altitude.
For simplicity, the calculations in the diagram above assume that the Earth is flat, and when accounting for the curvature of the Earth, the altitude of the radar beam at greater distances from the radar becomes even higher than the calculations above would suggest! What are the impacts of this increasing elevation with distance from the radar? First, you should realize that radar imagery often shows reflectivity from the precipitation targets within a cloud, and not necessarily what is falling out of the cloud. If you don't realize this fact, you can sometimes get confused when looking at radar imagery. For example, often when light precipitation falls into a layer of dry air below, it evaporates entirely before reaching the ground. Yet, it may look like it's precipitating on a radar image because the radar "sees" the precipitation at the level of the cloud.
Secondly, you should realize that radar signals are not typically obstructed by geography at distances more than, say, 25 miles from the radar (the beam is more than 1,100 feet off the ground at that point). The only exception to this rule is that there are certain locations, particularly in the western United States, where the tall mountains of the Rockies can block portions of the radar beam. Check out this image showing the coverage of the NEXRAD radars for the U.S. Note how some of the "circles of echoes" in the west look like somebody took a bite out of them. The irregular radar coverage over the western U.S. is a direct result of the mountainous terrain blocking some of the radar "beams."
At most sites, however, less than 25 miles from the radar site, a collection of stationary targets called "ground clutter," including buildings, hills, mountains, etc., frequently intercepts and back-scatters microwaves to the radar. Computers routinely filter out the common ground clutter so that radar images don't lend the impression that precipitation is always falling to beat the band around the radar site. To do this, radar images on clear days pinpoint surrounding buildings and hills, giving meteorologists a precipitation-free template to artificially filter out regular ground clutter.
So, now that you know how radar works, what determines the strength of the returning radar signal? And, how do you interpret the rainbow of colors on radar images? We'll cover these questions in the next section. Before continuing, however, please review these key facts about radar imagery.
- originates from ground-based sensors (not from satellites) that actively emit pulses of radiation.
- uses the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum (not the infrared).
- usually displays the variable "reflectivity" (units dBZ) which is the measure of the amount of signal returned to the radar from the original transmitted pulse.
- can help forecasters identify areas of precipitation.
- cannot tell you anything about cloud top temperature, cloud height, or cloud thickness.
There are many flavors of radar data available on the Internet (as well as on your mobile devices). Despite this variety, you should understand that the "raw" data all comes from the same place -- the network of NEXRAD radars operated by the National Weather Service. Here are some websites to get you started...
NOAA/National Weather Service: National Radar Mosaic
NCAR Realtime Weather: Single-site, National Mosaic and 5-day archive
College of DuPage Radar: Includes both a national mosaic, and single-site images. In the menu on the left, you can switch from the national mosaic to single-site radars via "Dual Pol NEXRAD". The single-site interface allows you to choose your location and product, even including scans from other elevation angles. Many of the products are beyond the scope of this course, but you're welcome to explore.
NEXRAD Data Inventory Search: If you're a real "data-hound" and want access to the full suite of archived radar data, this site is for you! This site is not for the technical faint of heart, but you can retrieve all of the Level-2 and Level-3 data produced by the NEXRAD system. Needless to say, much of the data is beyond the scope of this course, but you're welcome to play with it. Note that you will also need to download/install NOAA's Weather and Climate Toolkit to view the files.